EXPLORING THE GOSPEL OF JOHN
By the Rev. Dr. Michael Petty [Fr. Michael Petty]
St. Peter’s Anglican Church 
Note: This entry completes the series. There are no notes for the remainder of the Gospel of John.
“Farewell . . . For Now” (IV)
This section returns to two previous themes: Jesus’ return to the Father (13:1) and the coming of the Holy Spirit (14:15-17, 25-26; 15:26-27). The phrase, “these things,” of 16:4b, seems to refer to the warning about persecution and about the role of the Spirit. “This hour” brings an imperative to instruct the disciples. Jesus acknowledges the impact that “this hour” has had on the disciples; sorrow fills them (16:6). Yet, he also reminds them that it is to their advantage that he is going away: His departure is not a tragic accident but is part of the plan of God. Jesus has gone to prepare a place for the disciples and promises that they will be with him (14:1-4). He tells them that his work of revealing the Father will continue in them (14:12-14) and that he and the Father will come to dwell with them (14:15-21).
Jesus now makes very explicit the fact that the coming of the Spirit will be another fruit of his “departure.” (Note 14:18.) In the references to the Holy Spirit thus far, it is clear that the Spirit will enable the disciples to carry on Jesus’ witness. As the Greek name for the Holy Spirit, paraklatos, suggests, however, the nature of this witness is both positive and negative. Just as Jesus’ witness has had an accusatory dimension, so will that of the paraklatos. Because of the Holy Spirit, the witness of the disciples will have a prosecuting dimension: They will be pointing out what is wrong with the world. The language here is juridical in nature. The Spirit will secure convictions against the world on three counts:
First, the Spirit will convict the world sin — the sin of unbelief.
Second, the Spirit will convict the world for the wrong judgment it made about Jesus. The Holy Spirit will make it clear that the world’s verdict on Jesus was wrong and that God has reversed the verdict.
Third, the Spirit will convict the world because He will convict the ruler of the world. (Note 12:31 and 16:11.) The witness of the Spirit results in a reversal of values and undermines the world’s basic assumptions. But this witness of the Spirit, against the world, is ultimately for the world, as the Spirit-nourished witness of the disciples anticipates the final judgment.
16:12-15 returns to the theme of the Spirit’s work. Because the disciples cannot receive all that Jesus wishes to impart to them, the Spirit will come to “guide you into all the truth” (16:13). Here, the word “truth” is not an idea or a set of ideas but is Jesus himself (14:6). Like Jesus, the Spirit will not speak on his own authority but on that of the Father and, just as Jesus has glorified the Father, so the Spirit will glorify Jesus. Once again, it is clear that the Spirit does not impart random and independent revelations but gives to the disciples what Jesus has given to him (16:15).
(2) 16: 16-24:
This section continues the theme that emphasizes Jesus’ going away as a good thing but without reference to the Holy Spirit. Jesus’ going to the Father (16:17) means that his disciples will not see him for a time but then, later, they will see him. The disciples will see him after the resurrection and this will have a decisive effect upon them. It is clear that the disciples themselves have not grasped this important point (16:17). Having failed to grasp this point, they are also unable to understand the promise that Jesus leaves with them: “your sorrow will turn into joy” (16:20). The resurrection will bring about a great reversal. The metaphor in 16:21 is important and Isaiah 26:16-21; 66:7-17 provides the metaphor: It describes the travail of Israel which, when Israel passes through it, leads to salvation. In contrast to the present moment, there will come a time, after the resurrection, in which the burden of the lack of understanding of the disciples will lift (16:23): They will understand the reversal that God has brought about and what it means for Jesus to return to the Father. And because of their intimate relationship with Jesus, the Father will grant to the disciples his assistance, in carrying on Jesus’ witness (16:23).
16:25 probably refers back to texts like 14:25-26 and, thus, to the work of the Spirit. After the passing of “this hour,” the Spirit will interpret for the disciples what has happened and what these events mean. A summary of this interpretation follows, in 16:26-28: The clear implication is that this Gospel is the fruit of the interpretive work of the Spirit: It was imperative for the Spirit to undertake this work before the writing of this text. (Note 20:31.) The understanding to come stands in stark contrast with current incomprehension, as 16:29-30 expresses. As Jesus’ question in 16:31 implies, the disciples do not yet really believe and will manifest this unbelief, when they scatter and when they “will leave me alone.” In fleeing from arrest, in abandoning Jesus, the disciples do not show that they have lost their faith — for they do not yet actually possess it: This faith comes later. Even in his state of abandonment, however, Jesus is not alone, “for the Father is with me” (16:32). The final statement of this whole discourse in 16:33 summarizes the whole in that, ironically, Jesus’ departure will be the foundation of the disciples’ peace — a peace that is not merely a subjective feeling. It is precisely Jesus’ victory, his return to the Father, which establishes the victory of God. The disciples, through the Spirit, will know that Jesus has overcome the world and this reality will be the foundation of an eschatological peace — a peace that will be present, even in the midst of persecution.
Questions for Reflection
(1) In what ways does the Holy Spirit bear witness to Jesus today? How do we discern this witness?
(2) In what ways does Jesus’ victory over the world give us peace? What are some ways in which we can live more fully into this peace?